Investigation of Specific Targeting of Triptorelin-Conjugated Dextran-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles as a Targeted Probe in GnRH+ Cancer Cells in MRIRead the full article
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging is an exciting journal in the area of contrast agents and molecular imaging, covering all areas of imaging technologies with a special emphasis on MRI and PET.
Chief Editor, Professor Zimmer, focuses on the development and use of PET radiotracers for new applications of PET/MRI imaging in neuroscience and pharmacology.
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Diagnostic Value of Combined Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Predicting Parametrial Infiltration in Cervical Cancer
Objective. This study sought to determine the diagnostic value of combined intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in predicting parametrial infiltration (PMI) in patients with cervical cancer. Materials and Methods. We enrolled 65 patients with cervical cancer confirmed by radical hysterectomy (25 PMI-negative and 40 PMI-positive) who underwent IVIM and DTI pretreatment. The parameters of IVIM (ADC, D, D, and f) and DTI (average diffusion coefficient (DCavg) and fractional anisotropy (FA)) were recorded by two observers. All parameter differences were tested, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to estimate the diagnostic performance of significant metrics and their combinations. Results. Compared to the PMI-negative group, the PMI-positive group had significantly lower D (0.632 ± 0.017 vs. 0.773 ± 0.024, ) and lower FA (0.073 ± 0.002 vs. 0.085 ± 0.003, ). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of D and FA was 0.801 and 0.726, respectively, and the combination of D and FA improved the AUC to 0.931, with a sensitivity and specificity of 80.0% and 97.5%, respectively. Conclusion. D and FA values could be used to help diagnose PMI in patients with cervical cancer. The combination of IVIM and DTI was more valuable than either option alone.
Effect of Doxycycline on Survival in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in a Mouse Model
Background. Currently, there is no reliable nonsurgical treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). This study, therefore, investigates if doxycycline reduces AAA growth and the number of rupture-related deaths in a murine ApoE−/− model of AAA and whether gadofosveset trisodium-based MRI differs between animals with and without doxycycline treatment. Methods. Nine ApoE−/− mice were implanted with osmotic minipumps continuously releasing angiotensin II and treated with doxycycline (30 mg/kg/d) in parallel. After four weeks, MRI was performed at 3T with a clinical dose of the albumin-binding probe gadofosveset (0.03 mmol/kg). Results were compared with previously published wild-type control animals and with previously studied ApoE−/− animals without doxycycline treatment. Differences in mortality were also investigated between these groups. Results. In a previous study, we found that approximately 25% of angiotensin II-infused ApoE−/− mice died, whereas in the present study, only one out of 9 angiotensin II-infused and doxycycline-treated ApoE−/− mice (11.1%) died within 4 weeks. Furthermore, doxycycline-treated ApoE−/− mice showed significantly lower contrast-to-noise (CNR) values () in MRI compared to ApoE−/− mice without doxycycline treatment. In vivo measurements of relative signal enhancement (CNR) correlated significantly with ex vivo measurements of albumin staining (R2 = 0.58). In addition, a strong visual colocalization of albumin-positive areas in the fluorescence albumin staining with gadolinium distribution in LA-ICP-MS was shown. However, no significant difference in aneurysm size was observed after doxycycline treatment. Conclusion. The present experimental in vivo study suggests that doxycycline treatment may reduce rupture-related deaths in AAA by slowing endothelial damage without reversing aneurysm growth.
Diagnostic Accuracy of Combined PET/CT with MRI, 18F-FDG PET/MRI, and 18F-FDG PET/CT in Patients with Oropharyngeal and Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Introduction. The aim of this paper is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT, PET/MRI, and the combination of PET/CT and MRI for detecting synchronous cancer and distant metastasis in patients with oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OHSCC). Method. A large and growing body of literature has been conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA). The researchers collected all accessible literature existing through Cochrane Library (John Wiley & Sons) electronic databases, Embase (Elsevier), PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine), Scopus, and Google Scholar up to June 2020. Analyses were conducted using Stata version 12.0 (StataCorp LP). Results. A total of nine studies consisting of 1166 patients were included. The pooled sensitivity of combined PET/CT with MRI, 18F-FDG PET/MRI, and 18F-FDG PET/CT was 0.92, 0.80, and 0.79, respectively, and the corresponding specificities were 0.93, 0.91, and 0.88. The overall prevalence of distant metastases and synchronous cancer in patients with oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas was 9.2% and 11.8%, respectively, with the esophagus (4.6%) being the most common site of synchronous cancer. The most common sites of distant metastases were lung (3%), bone (1.2%), and distant lymph nodes (1.2%), respectively. Conclusion. Our study showed an approximately similar diagnostic performance for PET/CT, PET/MRI, and the combination of PET/CT and MRI for metastasis assessment in advanced oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas.
Preliminary Study on the Clinical Significance and Methods of Using Carbon Nanoparticles in Endoscopic Papillary Thyroid Cancer Surgery
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to find the clinical significance and methods of using CN in endoscopic treatment for PTC. Materials and Methods. A total of 108 cases were randomly enrolled and divided into two groups, with 50 cases in the CN injection group who were injected with CN and 58 cases in the control group with no CN injection. All cases were analyzed with the size of carcinoma, the number of lymph node, and parathyroid gland injury. Results. All operations were successfully completed. The lymph node dissection number was 274 for the control group and 322 (the rate of black stained was 87%) for the CN injection group. The average number of lymph nodes in the CN injection group was 6.44 ± 2.08, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (4.72 ± 1.89). The control group had a relatively higher incidence of incidental parathyroidectomy, compared to the CN injection group (27.6% in the control group vs. 12% in the CN injection group, ). However, the incidence of hypoparathyroidism failed to show the significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion. Using CN in endoscopic PTC surgery could increase the detection rate of lymph nodes and reduce the injury of parathyroid glands to a certain extent.
Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography Does Not Provide More Information about Sarcopenia than Unenhanced Computed Tomography in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer
Objective. The aim of this study was to understand whether enhanced CT can provide more information than unenhanced CT on diagnosis of sarcopenia. Materials and Methods. We reviewed the enhanced CT data of 45 patients of pancreatic cancer. Manual tracing of the psoas muscles was used for measuring the cross-sectional muscle areas and attenuation at umbilicus level; afterwards, PMI, PMD, and Δ PMD were calculated. Results. In the unenhanced scanning, arterial, venous, and parenchymal phases of enhanced CT, PMI values were 6.905 ± 2.170, 6.886 ± 2.195, 6.923 ± 2.239, and 6.866 ± 2.218, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant. The PMD values at different phases were 34.311 ± 7.535, 37.487 ± 7.118, 40.689 ± 7.116, and 42.989 ± 7.745, respectively, which were gradually increased, and the difference was statistically significant. Meanwhile, the PMD of arterial phase, venous phase, and parenchyma phase showed a linear correlation with PMD of unenhanced scanning phase. 31 patients had low PMD and 14 had normal PMD during the unenhanced scanning phase. With the addition of contrast agent, ΔPMD values increased faster in the low PMD group than in the normal PMD group during the venous and parenchymal phases (7.048 ± 3.067 vs 4.893 ± 2.558; 9.581 ± 3.033 vs 6.679 ± 2.621; ), which made the gap between PMD after contrast-enhancement vs. unenhanced scanning smaller. Conclusion. The use of contrast agent has no effect on the manually measured PMI values but can change the results of PMD. This change makes the difference of PMD in different enhancement phases smaller than that in plain scan phase and furthermore increases the examination cost; therefore, it is not recommended to use enhanced CT routinely with fixed dose administration of contrast agent for patients’ assessment of PMI and PMD.
Prognostic Value of 2-Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography after Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Lymphoma Using Deauville Scores
Purpose. In the present study, we mainly aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in lymphoma. Procedures. A total of 76 lymphoma patients who benefited from [18F]F-FDG PET-CT (within 3 months and 3–6 months) after ASCT in our institution between April 2010 and December 2019 were enrolled in this retrospective study. These abovementioned patients were divided into two groups based on the Deauville criteria. The Kaplan–Meier method was used in survival analysis, and the log-rank method was adopted in comparison. Prognostic factor analysis was performed by the Cox regression model. Results. Positive post-ASCT [18F]F-FDG PET-CT was associated with lower progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) ( = 0.001 and = 0.022, respectively). Univariate analysis showed the post-ASCT PET-CT result was the only independent factor associated with PFS ( = 0.002). Both the number of previous treatments and post-ASCT PET-CT result had a different impact on OS ( = 0.040 and = 0.028, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed the post-ASCT PET-CT result was the only independent factor associated with OS ( = 0.028). The results showed no significant change from the abovementioned results when DS < 3 was defined as the negative result. For patients who had a PET-CT scan within 3–6 months after ASCT, the negative PET-CT group had a better prognosis including PFS and OS ( = 0.009 and = 0.025, respectively). However, among the patients receiving PET-CT within 3 months, the result was not statistically significant ( = 0.064 and = 0.445, respectively). Conclusion. Collectively, we found that the post-ASCT [18F]F-FDG PET-CT was a strong indicator for PFS and OS, and a time window of 3–6 months was appropriate for post-ASCT [18F]F-FDG PET-CT. Trial registration number: ChiCTR2100042745.