Basil Polysaccharide Reverses Development of Experimental Model of Sepsis-Induced Secondary Staphylococcus aureus PneumoniaRead the full article
Mediators of Inflammation publishes papers on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules
Chief Editor, Professor Agrawal, is an Assistant Clinical Professor of the Division of Basic and Clinical Immunology. Dr. Agrawal's research focuses on the dendritic cells of the immune system in the context of aging and autoimmunity.
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Distinct Murine Pancreatic Transcriptomic Signatures during Chronic Pancreatitis Recovery
We have previously demonstrated that the pancreas can recover from chronic pancreatitis (CP) lesions in the cerulein-induced mouse model. To explore how pancreatic recovery is achieved at the molecular level, we used RNA-sequencing (seq) and profiled transcriptomes during CP transition to recovery. CP was induced by intraperitoneally injecting cerulein in C57BL/6 mice. Time-matched controls (CON) were given normal saline. Pancreata were harvested from mice 4 days after the final injections (designated as CP and CON) or 4 weeks after the final injections (designated as CP recovery (CPR) and control recovery (CONR)). Pancreatic RNAs were extracted for RNA-seq and quantitative (q) PCR validation. Using RNA-seq, we identified a total of 3,600 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in CP versus CON and 166 DEGs in CPR versus CONR. There are 132 DEGs overlapped between CP and CPR and 34 DEGs unique to CPR. A number of selected pancreatic fibrosis-relevant DEGs were validated by qPCR. The top 20 gene sets enriched from DEGs shared between CP and CPR are relevant to extracellular matrix and cancer biology, whereas the top 10 gene sets enriched from DEGs specific to CPR are pertinent to DNA methylation and specific signaling pathways. In conclusion, we identified a distinct set of DEGs in association with extracellular matrix and cancer cell activities to contrast CP and CPR. Once during ongoing CP recovery, DEGs relevant to DNA methylation and specific signaling pathways were induced to express. The DEGs shared between CP and CPR and the DEGs specific to CPR may serve as the unique transcriptomic signatures and biomarkers for determining CP recovery and monitoring potential therapeutic responses at the molecular level to reflect pancreatic histological resolution.
The Severity of CVB3-Induced Myocarditis Can Be Improved by Blocking the Orchestration of NLRP3 and Th17 in Balb/c Mice
Background. The functional characteristics of NLRP3 in the pathogenesis of coxsackievirus B3- (CVB3-) induced viral myocarditis (VMC) have not been fully elucidated, and the targeted therapeutic effect of NLRP3 or its related pathway in VMC has not been reported. Method. In this work, the change patterns of NLRP3- and Th17-related factors were detected during the pathological process of CVB3-induced VMC in Balb/c mice. The correlation between NLRP3 and Th17 cells during the VMC process was analyzed by Spearman test. The coculture system of spleen CD4+ T and bone marrow CD11c+ DC cells was set to explore the orchestration of NLRP3 and Th17 in the pathological development of VMC in vitro. Anti-IL-1β antibody or NLRP3-/- Balb/c were used to block the NLRP3 pathway indirectly and directly to analyze the NLRP3-targeting therapeutic value. Results. The change patterns of NLRP3- and Th17-related molecules in the whole pathological process of mouse CVB3-induced VMC were described. Through Spearman correlation analysis, it was confirmed that there was a close correlation between NLRP3 and Th17 cells in the whole pathological process of VMC. And the interaction mode between NLRP3 and Th17 was preliminarily explored in the cell experiment in vitro. Under the intervention of an anti-IL-1β antibody or NLRP3 knockout, the survival rate of the intervention group was significantly improved, the degree of myocardial inflammation and fibrosis was significantly alleviated, and the content of myocardial IL-17 and spleen Th17 was also significantly decreased. Conclusion. Our findings demonstrated a key role of the NLRP3 inflammasome and its close relationship with Th17 in the pathological progression of CVB3-induced VMC and suggested a possible positive feedback-like mutual regulation mechanism between the NLRP3 inflammasome and Th17 in vitro and in the early stage of CVB3 infection. Taking NLRP3 as a new starting point, it provides a new target and idea for the prevention and treatment of CVB3-induced VMC.
Perilla Leaf Extract Attenuates Asthma Airway Inflammation by Blocking the Syk Pathway
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton is a classic herbal plant used widely against asthma in China. But its mechanism of beneficial effect remains undermined. In the study, the antiallergic asthma effects of Perilla leaf extract (PLE) were investigated, and the underlying mechanism was also explored. Results showed that PLE treatment significantly attenuated airway inflammation in OVA-induced asthma mice, by ameliorating lung pathological changes, inhibiting recruitment of inflammatory cells in lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), decreasing the production of inflammatory cytokines in the BALF, and reducing the level of immunoglobulin in serum. PLE treatment suppressed inflammatory response in antigen-induced rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 (RBL-2H3) cells as well as in OVA-induced human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Furthermore, PLE markedly inhibited the expression and phosphorylation of Syk, NF-κB, PKC, and cPLA2 both in vivo and in vitro. By cotreating with inhibitors (BAY61-3606, Rottlerin, BAY11-7082, and arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone) in vitro, results revealed that PLE’s antiallergic inflammatory effects were associated with the inhibition of Syk and its downstream signals NF-κB, PKC, and cPLA2. Collectively, the present results suggested that PLE could attenuate allergic inflammation, and its mechanism might be partly mediated through inhibiting the Syk pathway.
Involvement of Dendritic Cells and Th17 Cells in Induced Tertiary Lymphoid Structures in a Chronic Beryllium Disease Mouse Model
Rationale. Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by the presence of granulomas in various organs, most commonly in the lungs. Although the ethology is unknown, sarcoidosis is thought to be mediated by T helper (Th)1 and Th17 lymphocytes. Chronic airway exposure to beryllium metal leads to chronic beryllium disease (CBD), which shares similarities with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Objective. To study airway pathophysiology and the role of dendritic cells (DCs) and IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) signals in a mouse model for CBD. Methods. Here, we present a CBD mouse model in which mice were exposed to beryllium during three weeks. We also exposed IL-17R-deficient mice and mice in which DCs were depleted. Results. Eight weeks after the initial beryllium exposure, an inflammatory response was detected in the lungs. Mice displayed inflammation of the lower airways that included focal dense infiltrates, granuloma-like foci, and tertiary lymphoid structure (TLS) containing T cells, B cells, and germinal centers. Alveolar cell analysis showed significantly increased numbers of CD4+ T cells expressing IFNγ, IL-17, or both cytokines. The pathogenic role of IL-17R signals was demonstrated in IL-17R-deficient mice, which had strongly reduced lung inflammation and TLS development following beryllium exposure. In CBD mice, pulmonary DC subsets including CD103+ conventional DCs (cDCs), CD11b+ cDCs, and monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) were also prominently increased. We used diphtheria toxin receptor-mediated targeted cell ablation to conditionally deplete DCs and found that DCs are essential for the maintenance of TLS in CBD. Furthermore, the presence of antinuclear autoantibodies in the serum of CBD mice showed that CBD had characteristics of autoimmune disease. Conclusions. We generated a translational model of sarcoidosis driven by beryllium and show that DCs and IL-17R signals play a pathophysiological role in CBD development as well as in established CBD in vivo.
An Aptamer-Based Antagonist against the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products (RAGE) Blocks Development of Colorectal Cancer
Tumor angiogenesis plays a crucial role in colorectal cancer development. Dysregulation of the receptor for the advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) transmembrane signaling mediates inflammation, resulting in various cancers. However, the mechanism of the RAGE signaling pathway in modulating development of colorectal cancer has not been explored. In this study, an aptamer-based RAGE antagonist (Apt-RAGE) was used to inhibit interaction between RAGE and S100B, thus blocking downstream NFκB-mediated signal transduction. In vitro results showed that Apt-RAGE effectively inhibited S100B-dependent and S100B-independent RAGE/NFκB activation in colorectal HCT116 cancer cells, thus decreasing proliferation and migration of cells. Notably, expression and secretion of VEGF-A were inhibited, implying that Apt-RAGE can be used as an antiangiogenesis agent in tumor therapy. Moreover, Apt-RAGE inhibited tumor growth and microvasculature formation in colorectal tumor-bearing mice. Inhibition of angiogenesis by Apt-RAGE was positively correlated with suppression of the RAGE/NFκB/VEGF-A signaling. The findings of this study show that Apt-RAGE antagonist is a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of colorectal cancer.
Assessment of the Vanillin Anti-Inflammatory and Regenerative Potentials in Inflamed Primary Human Gingival Fibroblast
Background. Inflammatory responses have been associated with delayed oral mucosal wound healing and the pathogenesis of the periodontal disease. The invasion of microbes into the tissues and the establishment of a chronic infection may be due to impaired healing. The protracted inflammatory phase may delay wound healing and probably support tissue fibrosis and reduce tissue regeneration. Vanillin is a well-known natural compound with potential anti-inflammatory capacity. Hence, we hypothesized that Vanillin could accelerate wound healing reducing inflammation and especially cytokine production making the oral tissue repair process easier. Methods. Our hypothesis was tested using primary human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cell pretreated with Vanillin and primed with IL-1β, as inductor of proinflammatory environment. After 24 hours of treatments, the gene expression and production of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, COX-2, iNOS, and nitric oxide (NO) generation and the wound healing rate were determined. Results. In IL-1β-primed cells, preincubation with Vanillin reduced IL-6, IL-8, COX-2, and iNOS expression and NO release, compared to IL-1β-primed cells. Moreover, Vanillin determines the increased gene expression of nAChRα7, leading us to hypothesize a role of Vanillin in the activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Furthermore, in presence of mechanical injury, the Vanillin preincubation, wound closure may be reducing the expression and release of IL-6 and TNF-α and upregulation of COX-2 and IL-8. Conclusion. Together, the results of this study highlight the anti-inflammatory and tissue repair ability of Vanillin in IL-1β-primed HGF. Therefore, Vanillin shows a potential therapeutic interest as an inflammatory modulator molecule with novel application in periodontal regeneration and oral health.