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Prevalence and Associated Factors of Adolescent Obesity among Rural School Adolescents in Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for chronic diseases and are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Obesity during adolescence is strongly associated with adulthood obesity leading to increased morbidities and mortality. As a developing country undergoing rapid urbanization, Nepal is in a transitional phase where undernutrition coexists with obesity; however, there is a dearth of literature on the status of adolescent obesity in the rural section of Nepal. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of adolescent obesity in a rural district of Nepal and find out its associated factors. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among the adolescent students studying in classes 8, 9, and 10 in four secondary schools of Gosaikunda rural municipality of Rasuwa district, Nepal. Total enumerative sampling was used, and Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) standard questionnaires were used in collecting the information. Height and weight measurements were taken, and the body mass index was classified according to Asia-Pacific criteria. The collected data were analyzed using “SPSS” version 22. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associated factors, and a value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Out of 267 adolescents, 14.6% were obese and 14.6% were overweight. Of the female participants, 39.6% were either obese or overweight, while 12.6% of the male adolescents were overweight/obese. Among the total participants, 16.5% were underweight, including 14.0% females and 20.4% males. Female adolescents were about five times (AOR: 5.2, 95% CI (2.5–10.9), < 0.01) more likely of being overweight/obese than male adolescents. Conclusions. More than one-quarter of the adolescents were found to be obese/overweight, and the prevalence was significantly more among female adolescents. It emphasizes the necessity of school-based programs promoting a healthy lifestyle among students to maintain healthy weight status.
Developing Clinical Phenotype Data Collection Standards for Research in Africa
Modern biomedical research is characterised by its high-throughput and interdisciplinary nature. Multiproject and consortium-based collaborations requiring meaningful analysis of multiple heterogeneous phenotypic datasets have become the norm; however, such analysis remains a challenge in many regions across the world. An increasing number of data harmonisation efforts are being undertaken by multistudy collaborations through either prospective standardised phenotype data collection or retrospective phenotype harmonisation. In this regard, the Phenotype Harmonisation Working Group (PHWG) of the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) consortium aimed to facilitate phenotype standardisation by both promoting the use of existing data collection standards (hosted by PhenX), adapting existing data collection standards for appropriate use in low- and middle-income regions such as Africa, and developing novel data collection standards where relevant gaps were identified. Ultimately, the PHWG produced 11 data collection kits, consisting of 82 protocols, 38 of which were existing protocols, 17 were adapted, and 27 were novel protocols. The data collection kits will facilitate phenotype standardisation and harmonisation not only in Africa but also across the larger research community. In addition, the PHWG aims to feed back adapted and novel protocols to existing reference platforms such as PhenX.
Pain Management in Pediatric Burns: A Review of the Science behind It
Pediatric burns are a significant medical issue that can have long-term effects on various aspects of a child’s health and well-being. Pain management in pediatric burns is a crucial aspect of treatment to ensure the comfort and well-being of young patients. The causes and risk factors for pediatric burns vary depending on various factors, such as geographical location, socioeconomic status, and cultural practices. Assessing pain in pediatric patients, especially during burn injury treatment, poses several challenges. These challenges stem from various factors, including the age and developmental stage of the child, the nature of burn injuries, and the limitations of pain assessment tools. In pediatric pain management, various pain assessment tools and scales are used to evaluate and measure pain in children. These tools are designed to account for the unique challenges of assessing pain in pediatric patients, including their age, developmental stage, and ability to communicate effectively. Pain can have significant physical, emotional, and psychological consequences for pediatric patients. It can interfere with their ability to engage in daily activities, disrupt sleep patterns, and negatively affect their mood and behavior. Untreated pain can also lead to increased stress, anxiety, and fear, which can further exacerbate the pain experience. Acute pain, which is short-term and typically associated with injury or illness, can disrupt a child’s ability to engage in physical activities and impede their overall recovery process. On the other hand, chronic pain, which persists for an extended period, can have long-lasting effects on physical functioning and quality of life in children. The psychological consequences of burns can persist long after the physical wounds have healed, leading to ongoing emotional distress and impaired functioning. Multimodal pain management, which involves the use of multiple interventions or medications targeting different aspects of the pain pathway, has gained recognition as an effective approach for managing pain in both children and adults. However, it is important to consider the specific needs and considerations of pediatric patients when developing evidence-based guidelines for multimodal pain management in this population. Over the years, there have been significant advances in pediatric pain research and technology, leading to a better understanding of pain mechanisms and the development of innovative approaches to assess and treat pain in children. Overall, pain management in pediatric burns requires a multidisciplinary approach that combines pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions.
Time to Recovery from COVID-19 and Its Predictors in Patients Hospitalized at Tibebe Ghion Specialized Hospital Care and Treatment Center, A Retrospective Follow-Up Study, North West Ethiopia
Background. Since the end of 2019, the world has been facing a new coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), which is considered a global pandemic. COVID-19 is considered a major public health burden due to the uncontrolled morbidity and mortality of the global community. The World Health Organization estimates the recovery time as 2 weeks for patients with mild infection and 3 to 6 weeks for those with serious illnesses. The recovery time and its predictors are not well studied in Ethiopia yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate time to recovery from COVID-19 and its predictors among COVID-19 patients admitted to Tibebe Ghion Specialized Hospital care and treatment center, North West Ethiopia. Methods. An institution-based retrospective follow-up study was conducted among 452 COVID-19 patients admitted to Tibebe Ghion Specialized Hospital from March 2020 to September 2021. Simple random sampling using a table of random number generators was used to select study units. Data entry and analysis were performed using EpiData 3.1 and Stata version 14, respectively. Bivariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to identify predictors of recovery time. An AHR at a 5% level of significance was used to identify significant predictors. Results: Among 452 COVID-19 patients, 437 (88%) were recovered, with a median recovery time of 9 days. Recovery time was significantly related to age (AHR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97, 0.99), oxygen saturation (AHR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.31, 0.56), shortness of breath (AHR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.47, 0.85), disease severity (moderate (AHR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.47, 0.85) and severe (AHR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.22, 0.47)), and comorbidities (AHR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.84). Conclusions and recommendations: The overall median recovery time was 9 days. Older age, low oxygen saturation, shortness of breath, disease severity (moderate and severe), history of comorbidities, and high-level of WBC were predictors of delayed recovery time. On the other hand, corticosteroid use significantly shortens the median recovery time of COVID-19 patients. Thus, patients presented with older age, low oxygen saturation, shortness of breath, moderate and severe COVID-19 disease, comorbidities, and increased WBC need to be closely monitoring and followed up by healthcare providers. In addition, there should be special attention during the administration of corticosteroid.
Global Trend on Machine Learning in Helicobacter within One Decade: A Scientometric Study
Purpose. This study aims to create a science map, provide structural analysis, investigate evolution, and identify new trends in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) research articles. Methods. All Helicobacter publications were gathered from the Web of Science (WoS) database from August 2010 to 2021. The data were required for bibliometric analysis. The bibliometric analysis was performed with Bibliometrix R Tool. Bibliometric data were analyzed using the Bibliometrix Biblioshiny R-package software. Results. A total of 17,413 articles were reviewed and analyzed, with descriptive characteristics of the H. pylori literature included. In journals, 21,102 keywords plus and 20,490 author keywords were reported. These articles were also written by 56,106 different authors, with 262 being single-author articles. Most authors’ abstracts, titles, and keywords included “Helicobacter-pylori.” Since 2010, the total number of H. pylori-related publications has been decreasing. Gut, PLOS ONE, and Gastroenterology are the most influential H. pylori journals, according to source impact. China, the United States, and Japan are the countries with most affiliations and subjects. In addition, Seoul National University has published the most articles about H. pylori. According to the cloud word plot, the authors’ most frequently used keywords are gastric cancer (GC), H. pylori, gastritis, eradication, and inflammation. “Helicobacter pylori” and “infection” have the steepest slopes in terms of the upward trend of words used in articles from 2010 to 2021. Subjects such as GC, intestinal metaplasia, epidemiology, peptic ulcer, eradication, and clarithromycin are included in the diagram’s motor theme section, according to strategic diagrams. According to the thematic evolution map, topics such as Helicobacter pylori infection, B-cell lymphoma, CagA, Helicobacter pylori, and infection were largely discussed between 2010 and 2015. From 2016 to 2021, the top topics covered included Helicobacter pylori, H. pylori infection, and infection.
Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases in Nepal from 1990 to 2019: The Global Burden of Disease Study, 2019
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have emerged as the leading cause of deaths worldwide in 2019. Globally, more than three-quarters of the total deaths due to CVDs occur in low- and middle-income countries like Nepal. Although increasing number of studies is available on the prevalence of CVDs, there is limited evidence presenting a complete picture on the burden of CVDs in Nepal. In this context, this study aims to provide comprehensive picture on the burden of CVDs in the country. This study is based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2019, which is a multinational collaborative research covering 204 countries and territories across the world. The estimations made from the study are publicly available in the GBD Compare webpage operated by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), University of Washington. This article makes use of those data available on the GBD Compare page of IHME website to present the comprehensive picture of the burden of CVDs in Nepal. Overall, in 2019, there were an estimated 1,214,607 cases, 46,501 deaths, and 1,104,474 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to CVDs in Nepal. The age-standardized mortality rates for CVDs witnessed a marginal reduction from 267.60 per 100,000 population in 1990 to 245.38 per 100,000 population in 2019. The proportion of deaths and DALYs attributable to CVDs increased from 9.77% to 24.04% and from 4.82% to 11.89%, respectively, between 1990 and 2019. Even though there are relatively stable rates of age-standardized prevalence, and mortality, the proportion of deaths and DALYs attributed to CVDs have risen sharply between 1990 and 2019. Besides implementing the preventive measures, the health system also needs to prepare itself for the delivery of long-term care of patients with CVDs which could have significant implications on resources and operations.