Article of the Year 2021
Combined Use of Chitosan and Olfactory Mucosa Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells to Promote Peripheral Nerve Regeneration In VivoRead the full article
Stem Cells International publishes papers in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal publishes basic, translational, and clinical research, including animal models and clinical trials.
Chief Editor Professor Li has a background in cardiac stem cell transplantation, using young stem cells to promote tissue repair following injury to rejuvenate the aged individual, and the development of biomaterials that can easily integrate into damaged heart tissue.
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The Technique of Phacoemulsification and Intraocular Lens Implantation in Subluxated Cataract Surgery
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and practicability of phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation for subluxated cataracts. A retrospective review of subluxated cataract surgeries of 19 eyes performed in Kunhua Hospital Affiliated with Kunming University of Science and Technology between January 2017 and June 2021 was conducted. We choose to use the rotate-and-chop phacoemulsification techniques described when the crystal nucleus is rotated out of the capsular bag and simultaneously perform horizontal chops over the capsule. The viscoelastic agent was the important material that filled the capsule to support the capsular bag, and capsular hooks were used in 10 eyes necessarily. Anterior vitrectomy was undergone in 15 eyes. Single-piece intraocular lenses (IOL) were implanted in the capsular bag in 12 eyes including 8 capsular tension ring (CTR) implantation. Three-piece IOLs were fixed scleral layer in 7 eyes. Follow-up was 6 months to 2 years, and all eyes were successfully implanted with centered IOL. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) increased from to . The cornea of all patients was clear, the intraocular lens was centered, the pupil was round, and the intraocular pressure was normal. Subluxated cataracts are a challenging surgery. The technique of phacoemulsification in subluxated cataract surgery is a key procedure to rotate and remove the lens from the capsule and at the same time horizontal chops and emulsification over the capsular bag to be performed. Viscoelastic agents and capsular hooks were important choices to support the capsule to reduce the incidence of complications related to the vitreous and retina and prevent the range enlarging of the zonular dialysis. A capsular tension ring was also an effective device to maintain capsular stability. Double-needle-guided scleral interlamellar fixation is an effective and practical method for IOL. Overall, the incision technique explored in this study and the surgical technique to support capsular stabilization provide a safe approach and satisfactory results in cataract surgery for subluxation.
The Proangiogenic Potential of Rat Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells with and without Cell-Sheet Induction: A Comparative Study
A functional vasculature for survival remains a challenge for tissue regeneration, which is indispensable for oxygen and nutrient supply. Utilizing mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to alleviate tissue ischemia and repair dysfunctional or damaged endothelium is a promising strategy. Compared to other populations of MSCs, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) possess a more significant proangiogenic potential and are abundantly available. Cell sheet technology has recently been widely utilized in bone engineering. Compared to conventional methods of seeding seed cell suspension onto biological scaffolds, cell sheet technology prevents cell loss and preserves the extracellular matrix (ECM). Nevertheless, the proangiogenic potential of ASC sheets remains unknown. In this study, rat ASC sheets were constructed, and their macro- and microstructures were examined. In addition, we investigated the effects of ASCs and ASC sheets on the biological properties and angiogenic capacity of endothelial cells (ECs). The results demonstrated that the ASC sheets gradually thickened as the number of cells and ECM increased over time and that the cells were in an active state of secretion. Similar to ASC-CM, the conditioned medium (CM) of ASC sheets could significantly enhance the proliferative capacity of ECs. ASC sheet-CM has significant advantages over ASC-CM in promoting the migration and angiogenesis of ECs, where the exosomes secreted by ASC sheets play an essential role. Therefore, using ASC sheets for therapeutic tissue and organ regeneration angiogenesis may be a valuable strategy.
Autophagy Regulates Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells Induced by Orthodontic Tension
Tooth movement is the core of orthodontics. Osteogenesis of the tension side under orthodontic force has great significance on tooth movement and stability, which involves complex mechanical and biological signal transduction. However, the mechanism remains unclear. Through in vitro cell studies, we observed the increased expression levels of osteogenesis-related factors and autophagy-related factors during the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells induced by orthodontic force. The change trend of autophagy-related factors and osteogenesis-related factors is similar, which indicates the involvement of autophagy in osteogenesis. In the study of autophagy-related gene ATG7 silenced cells, the expression level of autophagy was significantly inhibited, and the expression level of osteogenesis-related factors also decreased accordingly. Through drug regulation, we observed that the increase of autophagy level could effectively promote osteogenic differentiation, while the decrease of the autophagy level inhibited this process to some extent. Therefore, autophagy plays an important role in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells induced by orthodontic force, which provides a novel idea useful for orthodontic treatment in promoting periodontal tissue remodeling and accelerating tooth movement.
Characterizing the Crosstalk of NCAPG with Tumor Microenvironment and Tumor Stemness in Stomach Adenocarcinoma
Background. Nonstructural maintenance of non-SMC condensin I complex subunit G (NCAPG) exerts critical effects on cancer progression. However, its biological roles in tumorigenesis and metastasis remain unclear. Thus, we aimed to assess the prognostic utility of NCAPG in stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) and its potential as a tumor biomarker. Methods. Pan-cancer expression profile dataset from public databases and corresponding clinical information were extracted. Single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) was performed for the evaluation of immune correlations pan-cancer. Subsequently, we focused on STAD and evaluated the methylation profiles, copy number variants (CNVs), and single nucleotide variants (SNVs). Immune features were analyzed between high and low NCAPG expression groups. Differential analysis was performed between high and low expression groups to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Prognostic DEGs were screened by univariate analysis, and an NCAPG-based risk model was constructed based on the prognostic DEGs and LASSO analysis. Results. NCAPG expression in STAD was significantly and positively correlated with four immune checkpoints, namely, CTLA4, PDCD1, LAG3, and CD276, but was negatively correlated with the infiltration of most immune cells. High and low NCAPG expression groups had differential overall survival, tumor mutation burden, and differential enrichment of therapeutic-related pathways. An immune risk scoring model related to NCAPG expression and immune score was constructed which showed a favorable performance in predicting STAD prognosis as well as predicting the response to immunotherapy. In addition, we found a higher mRNA stemness index (mRNAsi) in the high-risk group and a positive correlation between NCAPG expression and mRNAsi. Conclusion. NCAPG was suggested to be involved in the regulation of tumor microenvironment in STAD. High NCAPG expression was related to high tumor stemness and good prognosis. The immune risk model had a potential to predict STAD prognosis and help directing therapeutic treatment.
Mesenchymal Stem Cells May Alleviate the Intervertebral Disc Degeneration by Reducing the Oxidative Stress in Nucleus Pulposus Cells
Background. Stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic modality for intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Oxidative stress is a vital contributor to the IDD; however, the definite role of oxidative stress in stem cell therapy for IDD remains obscure. The aim of this study was to determine the vital role of oxidative stress-related differentially expressed genes (OSRDEGs) in degenerative NPCs cocultured with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Methods. A series of bioinformatic methods were used to calculate the oxidative stress score and autophagy score, identify the OSRDEGs, conduct the function enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis, build the relevant competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory networks, and explore the potential association between oxidative stress and autophagy in degenerative NPCs cocultured with MSCs. Results. There was a significantly different oxidative stress score between NPC/MSC samples and NPC samples (). Forty-one OSRDEGs were selected for the function enrichment and PPI analyses. Ten hub OSRDEGs were obtained according to the PPI score, including JUN, CAT, PTGS2, TLR4, FOS, APOE, EDN1, TXNRD1, LRRK2, and KLF2. The ceRNA regulatory network, which contained 17 DElncRNAs, 240 miRNAs, and 10 hub OSRDEGs, was constructed. Moreover, a significant relationship between the oxidative stress score and autophagy score was observed (), and 125 significantly related gene pairs were obtained (, ). Conclusion. Stem cell therapy might repair the degenerative IVD via reducing the oxidative stress through the ceRNA regulatory work and restoration of autophagy in degenerative NPCs. This research could provide new insights into the mechanism research of stem cell therapy for IDD and potential therapeutic targets in the IDD treatment.
FAIM Enhances the Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation by Inhibiting JNK-Induced c-FLIP Ubiquitination and Degradation
Background. The poor survival rates of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in harsh microenvironments impair the efficacy of MSCs transplantation in myocardial infarction (MI). Extrinsic apoptosis pathways play an important role in the apoptosis of transplanted MSCs, and Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule (FAIM) is involved in regulation of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. Thus, we aimed to explore whether FAIM augmentation protects MSCs against stress-induced apoptosis and thereby improves the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs. Methods. We ligated the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) in the mouse heart to generate an MI model and then injected FAIM-overexpressing MSCs (MSCsFAIM) into the peri-infarction area in vivo. Moreover, FAIM-overexpressing MSCs were challenged with oxygen, serum, and glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro, which mimicked the harsh microenvironment that occurs in cardiac infarction. Results. FAIM was markedly downregulated under OGD conditions, and FAIM overexpression protected MSCs against OGD-induced apoptosis. MSCsFAIM transplantation improved cell retention, strengthened angiogenesis, and ameliorated heart function. The antiapoptotic effect of FAIM was mediated by cellular-FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), and FAIM augmentation improved the protein expression of c-FLIP by reducing ubiquitin–proteasome-dependent c-FLIP degradation. Furthermore, FAIM inhibited the activation of JNK, and treatment with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 abrogated the reduction in c-FLIP protein expression caused by FAIM silencing. Conclusions. Overall, these results indicated that FAIM curbed the JNK-mediated, ubiquitination–proteasome-dependent degradation of c-FLIP, thereby improving the survival of transplanted MSCs and enhancing their efficacy in MI. This study may provide a novel approach to strengthen the therapeutic effect of MSC-based therapy.