Article of the Year 2021
COVID-19 and Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4): SARS-CoV-2 May Bind and Activate TLR4 to Increase ACE2 Expression, Facilitating Entry and Causing HyperinflammationRead the full article
Mediators of Inflammation publishes papers on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules
Chief Editor, Professor Agrawal, is an Assistant Clinical Professor of the Division of Basic and Clinical Immunology. Dr. Agrawal's research focuses on the dendritic cells of the immune system in the context of aging and autoimmunity.
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The Role of Noncoding RNA in Airway Allergic Diseases through Regulation of T Cell Subsets
Allergic rhinitis and asthma are common airway allergic diseases, the incidence of which has increased annually in recent years. The human body is frequently exposed to allergens and environmental irritants that trigger immune and inflammatory responses, resulting in altered gene expression. Mounting evidence suggested that epigenetic alterations were strongly associated with the progression and severity of allergic diseases. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a class of transcribed RNA molecules that cannot be translated into polypeptides and consist of three major categories, microRNAs (miRNAs), long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs). Previous studies showed that ncRNAs were involved in the physiopathological mechanisms of airway allergic diseases and contributed to their occurrence and development. This article reviews the current state of understanding of the role of noncoding RNAs in airway allergic diseases, highlights the limitations of recent studies, and outlines the prospects for further research to facilitate the clinical translation of noncoding RNAs as therapeutic targets and biomarkers.
Proteomic Analysis of Exudates from Chronic Ulcer of Diabetic Foot Treated with Scorpion Antimicrobial Peptide
Scorpion peptides have good therapeutic effect on chronic ulcer of diabetic foot, but the related pharmacological mechanism has remained unclear. The different proteins and bacteria present in ulcer exudates from chronic diabetic foot patients, treated with scorpion antimicrobial peptide at different stages, were analyzed using isobaric tags for quantification-labeled proteomics and bacteriological methods. According to the mass spectrometry data, a total of 1865 proteins were identified qualitatively, and the number of the different proteins was 130 (mid/early), 401 (late/early), and 310 (mid, late/early). In addition, functional annotation, cluster analysis of effects and the analysis of signal pathway, transcription regulation, and protein-protein interaction network were carried out. The results showed that the biochemical changes of wound microenvironment during the treatment involved activated biological functions such as protein synthesis, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, movement, and survival. Inhibited biological functions such as cell death, inflammatory response, immune diseases, and bacterial growth were also involved. Bacteriological analysis showed that Burkholderia cepacia was the main bacteria in the early and middle stage of ulcer exudate and Staphylococcus epidermidis in the late stage. This study provides basic data for further elucidation of the molecular mechanism of diabetic foot.
Interference of Interleukin-1β Mediated by Lentivirus Promotes Functional Recovery of Spinal Cord Contusion Injury in Rats via the PI3K/AKT1 Signaling Pathway
Purpose. Inflammation and apoptosis after spinal cord contusion (SCC) are important causes of irreversible spinal cord injury. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a key inflammatory factor that promotes the aggravation of spinal cord contusion. However, the specific role and regulatory mechanism of IL-1β in spinal cord contusion is still unclear. Therefore, this study applied bioinformatics to analyze and mine potential gene targets interlinked with IL-1β, animal experiments and lentiviral interference technology were used to explore whether IL-1β affected the recovery of motor function in spinal cord contusion by interfering with PI3K/AKT1 signaling pathway. Method. This study used bioinformatics to screen and analyze gene targets related to IL-1β. The rat SCC animal model was established by the Allen method, and the Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) score was used to evaluate the motor function of the spinal cord-injured rats. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to localize the expression of IL-1β and AKT1 proteins in spinal cord tissue. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were used to detect the gene and protein expressions of IL-1β, PI3K, and AKT1. RNAi technology was used to construct lentivirus to inhibit the expression of IL-1β, lentiviral interference with IL-1β was used to investigate the effect of IL-1β and AKT1 on the function of spinal cord contusion and the relationship among IL-1β, AKT1, and downstream signaling pathways. Results. Bioinformatics analysis suggested a close relationship between IL-1β and AKT1. Animal experiments have confirmed that IL-1β is closely related to the functional recovery of spinal cord contusion. Firstly, from the phenomenological level, the BBB score decreased after SCC, IL-1β and AKT1 were located in the cytoplasm of neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, and the expression levels of IL-1β gene and protein in the experimental group were higher than those in the sham operation group. At the same time, the expression of AKT1 gene decreased, the results suggested that the increase of IL-1β affected the functional recovery of spinal cord contusion. Secondly, from the functional level, after inhibiting the expression of IL-1β with a lentivirus-mediated method, the BBB score was significantly increased, and the motor function of the spinal cord was improved. Thirdly, from the mechanistic level, bioinformatics analysis revealed the relationship between IL-1β and AKT1. In addition, the experiment further verified that in the PI3K/AKT1 signaling pathway, inhibition of IL-1β expression upregulated AKT1 gene expression, but PI3K expression was unchanged. Conclusion. Inhibition of IL-1β promotes recovery of motor function after spinal cord injury in rats through upregulation of AKT1 expression in the PI3K/AKT1 signaling pathway. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that IL-1β may affect apoptosis and regeneration by inhibiting the expression of AKT1 in the PI3K/AKT1 signaling pathway to regulate the downstream FOXO, mTOR, and GSK3 signaling pathways; thereby hindering the recovery of motor function in rats after spinal cord contusion. It provided a new perspective for clinical treatment of spinal cord contusion in the future.
Lysophosphatidic Acid Induced Apoptosis, DNA Damage, and Oxidative Stress in Spinal Cord Neurons by Upregulating LPA4/LPA6 Receptors
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has disruptive effects on lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Recently, LPA has been reported to be involved in spinal cord neuronal injury and toxicity, promoting the pathogenesis of LSS. However, the exact effects of LPA on spinal cord neurons remain unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of LPA (18 : 1) on spinal cord neuronal cytotoxicity, apoptosis, DNA damage, and oxidative stress. After clinical detection of LPA secretion, spinal cord neurons were treated with LPA (18 : 1); cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay, and LDH leakage was detected by LDH kit; cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry; ROS production was measured by DCFDA staining and MitoSOX Red Staining; the activation of the Gα12/Gα13 signaling pathway was detected by serum response factor response element (SRF-RE) luciferase reporter gene; the relationship among LPA, LPA4/6, and ROCK was examined by western blotting. In spinal cord neurons treated with LPA (18 : 1), cellular activity decreased and LDH release increased. The Rho kinase inhibitor (Y-27632) can attenuate LPA-induced apoptosis, DNA damage, and oxidative stress in spinal cord neurons. Moreover mechanistic investigation indicated that LPA (18 : 1) activates Gα12/13–Rho–ROCK2-induced apoptosis, DNA damage, and oxidative stress in spinal cord neurons by upregulating LPA4/LPA6 receptors. Further, the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 attenuates the effects of LPA by downregulating LPA4/LPA6 receptors. Taken together, the possible mechanism by which LPA secretion in LSS patients aggravates patient injury was further elucidated using an LPA-induced spinal cord neuronal injury cell model in vitro.
Influence of the Gut Microbiota on the Development of Neurodegenerative Diseases
Neurodegenerative disorders are marked by neuronal death over time, causing a variety of cognitive and motor dysfunctions. Protein misfolding, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial and protein clearance system dysfunction have all been identified as common pathways leading to neurodegeneration in recent decades. An altered microbiome of the gut, which is considered to play a central role in diseases as well as health, has recently been identified as another potential feature seen in neurodegenerative disorders. An array of microbial molecules that are released in the digestive tract may mediate gut-brain connections and permeate many organ systems, including the nervous system. Furthermore, recent findings from clinical as well as preclinical trials suggest that the microbiota of the gut plays a critical part in gut-brain interplay and that a misbalance in the composition of the gut microbiome may be linked to the etiology of neurological disorders (majorly neurodegenerative health problems); the underlying mechanism of which is still unknown. The review aims to consider the association between the microbiota of the gut and neurodegenerative disorders, as well as to add to our understanding of the significance of the gut microbiome in neurodegeneration and the mechanisms that underlie it. Knowing the mechanisms behind the gut microbiome’s role and abundance will provide us with new insights that could lead to novel therapeutic strategies.
Homoharringtonine Attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Inhibiting NF-κB Signaling
Homoharringtonine (HHT) exhibits an anti-inflammatory activity. The potential protective effects and mechanisms of HHT on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis were investigated. DSS-induced colitis mice were intraperitoneally injected with HHT. Body weight, colon length, disease activity index (DAI), and histopathological change were examined. The relative contents of interleukin- (IL-) 1β, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, IL-6, and the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) in the colon tissues and HHT-treated RAW264.7 cells were detected with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the meantime, the levels of p-p65 and p-IκBα were detected by Western blot. The proportion of macrophages (CD11b+F4/80+) in the colon tissues was detected by flow cytometry. HHT alleviated DSS-induced colitis with downregulated TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and CCL2 expression; reduced activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling; and diminished proportion of recruited macrophages in colon tissues. It was further testified that HHT inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage activation with reduced activation of NF-κB signaling. In addition, HHT inhibited the M1 polarization of both human and mouse macrophages, while HHT did not affect the differentiation of human CD4 T cells into Th17, Th1, or Treg cells and did not affect the proliferation and migration of human colon epithelial cells. In summary, HHT attenuates DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting macrophage-associated NF-κB activation and M1 polarization, which could be an option for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.