Article of the Year 2022
Cutaneous Wound Healing: A Review about Innate Immune Response and Current Therapeutic ApplicationsRead the full article
Mediators of Inflammation publishes papers on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules
Chief Editor, Professor Agrawal, is an Assistant Clinical Professor of the Division of Basic and Clinical Immunology. Dr. Agrawal's research focuses on the dendritic cells of the immune system in the context of aging and autoimmunity.
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Prognostic Value of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients
Objective. To determine prognostic role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in intensive care patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Materials and Methods. From December 2018 to July 2021, a total of 91 eligible patients with AMI were consecutively examined in a single intensive care unit (ICU) in China. Patients with a history of acute coronary artery disease were excluded from the study. Samples were collected within 24 hr of onset of symptoms. EPCs, defined as coexpression of CD34+/CD133+ cells or CD133+/CD34+/KDR+, were studied using flow cytometry and categorized by quartiles. Based on the 28-days mortality outcome, the patients were further divided into two groups: death and survival. The study incorporated various variables, including cardiovascular risk factors such as body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerotic burden, and medication history, as well as clinical characteristics such as APACHEⅡscore, central venous-arterial carbon dioxide difference (GAP), homocysteine, creatinine, C-reactive protein, HbAlc, and cardiac index. Cox regression analysis was employed to conduct a multivariate analysis. Results. A total of 91 patients with AMI who were admitted to the ICU were deemed eligible for inclusion in the study. Among these patients, 23 (25.3%) died from various causes during the follow-up period. The counts of EPCs were found to be significantly higher in the survival group compared to the death group (). In the univariate analysis, it was observed that the 28-days mortality rate was associated with the several factors, including the APACHEⅡscore (), vasoactive inotropic score (), GAP (), HCY (), creatinine (), C-reactive protein (), HbAlc (), CI (), quartiles of CD34+/CD133+ cells (), and quartiles of CD34+/CD133+/KDR+ cells (). CD34+/CD133+/KDR+ cells retained statistical significance in Cox regression models even after controlling for clinical variables (HR: 6.258 × 10−10 and ). Nevertheless, no significant correlation was observed between CD34+/CD133+ cells and all-cause mortality. Conclusions. The decreased EPCs levels, especially for CD34+/CD133+/KDR+ cells subsets, were an independent risk factor for 28-days mortality in AMI patients.
Effects of Omalizumab on Serum Levels of Substance P, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide, Neuropeptide Y, and Interleukin-31 in Patients with Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria
The mechanism of action of omalizumab in urticaria is still not literally known. This study examines the serum values of substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and interleukin-31 (IL-31) in patients using omalizumab. In this study, 30 patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) who were going to be treated with omalizumab and 20 healthy volunteers took part. Demographic data, clinical data, and disease activity scores were noted. For serum SP, CGRP, NPY, and IL-31 values, 10 mL of blood were taken from the patients before starting the treatment, 3 months after the treatment, at the end of the 6th month, and from healthy volunteers all at once. The change in values measured at baseline, 3rd month, and 6th month was analyzed by the Friedman Test. The Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare the parameters obtained from the patients and control groups. The significance level was set at . SP, CGRP, NPY, and IL-31 values were all statistically significantly lower in the CSU patient group compared to the control group. After treatment, the levels of SP and CGRP in the serum went up, and the levels of serum IL-31 went down. These changes were statistically significant. This study supports the view that omalizumab does not only affect IgE receptors but also affects mast cells through other mechanisms. According to our knowledge, this is the first study to show that omalizumab therapy and serum CGRP levels are related.
Betulinic Acid Attenuates Osteoarthritis via Limiting NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation to Decrease Interleukin-1β Maturation and Secretion
Introduction. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative joint disorder. Prior studies revealed that activation of NLRP3 inflammasome could promote the activation and secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which has an adverse effect on the progression of OA. Betulinic acid (BA) is a compound extract of birch, whether it can protect against OA and the mechanisms involved are still unknown. Materials and Methods. In vivo experiments, using gait analysis, ELISA, micro-CT, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), histological staining, immunohistological (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF) staining, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to assess OA progression after intraperitoneal injection of 5 and 15 mg/kg BA in an OA mouse model. In vitro experiments, caspase-1, IL-1β, and the N-terminal fragment of gasdermin D (GSDMD-NT) were measured in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) by using ELISA, western blot, and immunofluorescence staining. Results. We demonstrated that OA progression can be postponed with intraperitoneal injection of 5 and 15 mg/kg BA in an OA mouse model. Specifically, BA postponed DMM-induced cartilage deterioration, alleviated subchondral bone sclerosis, and relieved synovial inflammation. In vitro studies, the activated NLRP3 inflammasome produces mature IL-1β by facilitating the cleavage of pro-IL-1β, and BA could inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in BMDMs. Conclusions. Taken together, our analyses revealed that BA attenuates OA via limiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation to decrease the IL-1β maturation and secretion.
Trans-Anethole Alleviates DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis by Remodeling the Intestinal Flora to Regulate Immunity and Bile Acid Metabolism
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is the most common inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); it is incurable, and the treatment is expensive. Trans-anethole (TA), the main component of fennel, exhibits various biological activities. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated the efficacy of herbal active ingredients in the treatment of UC. This study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of TA in UC. In this study, we have experimented on mice with dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS)-induced UC. The TA group was gavaged with 62.5 mg/kg TA by gavage once daily on days 8–14. To observe the effect of TA on the colon tissue, various investigations were performed, including western blot and immunohistochemistry for intestinal barrier protein expression, TUNEL staining for apoptosis, western blot, and ELISA for inflammation level, flow cytometry for Th17/Treg, LC–MS for blood bile acid content, GC–MS for blood fatty acid content, and 16s RNA for intestinal contents. TA alleviated weight loss in mice with UC; increased colon length; alleviated intestinal mucosal damage; upregulated claudin-1, occludin, and ZO-1 protein expression levels; reduced inflammatory factors in the colon and serum; and alleviated apoptosis. TA reduced fatty acid and bile acid levels by inhibiting colony abundance and reducing Th17/Treg cell differentiation in the colon. We found that TA alleviates DSS-induced UC by remodeling the intestinal flora to regulate immunity and bile acid metabolism.
BCL-3 Promotes Intracerebral Hemorrhage Progression by Increasing Blood–Brain Barrier Permeability, Inflammation, and Cell Apoptosis via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
Background. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is among the common types of stroke with high mortality and morbidity. Molecular biomarker selection is crucial for ICH diagnosis and treatment. However, the identification of ICH-related biomarkers remains inadequate. Materials and Methods. In vivo and in vitro ICH models were generated and transfected with silenced B-cell lymphoma-3 (BCL-3 and siRNA BCL-3), overexpressed BCL-3, and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) agonist (2-CLHA). Hematoxylin–eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the transfected cells. RNA sequencing was performed in vivo on the sham and ICH groups. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability was evaluated by determining Evans blue dye extravasation, transendothelial electrical resistance, and paracellular permeability. Moreover, tight junction-, cell apoptosis-, and endoplasmic reticulum stress- (ERS-) related proteins were evaluated through real-time quantitative PCR, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and TUNEL staining. The levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured through the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. RNA-seq revealed that BCL-3 acts as a key player. BCL-3 promotes ICH progression by increasing BBB permeability, ERS, inflammation, and cell apoptosis. Silencing of BCL-3 slows ICH progression by reducing BBB permeability and inflammation and terminating cell apoptosis and ERS in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion. Our study identified ICH biomarkers and elucidated the role of BCL-3 in ICH for the first time.
High-Fat Mouse Model to Explore the Relationship between Abnormal Lipid Metabolism and Enolase in Pancreatic Cancer
Malignant tumors have become a major social health problem that seriously threatens human health, among which pancreatic cancer has a high degree of malignancy, difficult diagnosis and treatment, short survival time, and high mortality. More and more attention has been paid to abnormal lipid metabolism as a momentous carcinogenesis mechanism. Here, we explored the relationship between abnormal lipid metabolism, enolase, and pancreatic cancer by clinical data analysis. A high-fat mouse model was constructed, and then, a subcutaneous tumorigenesis mouse model of carcinoma of pancreatic cells and a metastatic neoplasm mouse pattern of pancreatic carcinoma cells injected through the tail vein were constructed to explore whether abnormal lipid metabolism affects the progression of pancreatic cancer in mice. We constructed a high-lipid model of pancreatic carcinoma cell lines and knockdown and overexpressed enolase in pancreatic carcinoma cell lines and investigated whether high lipid regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by upregulating enolase (ENO), thereby promoting the cells of pancreatic carcinoma to invade and migrate. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, free cholesterin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) from pancreatic cancer patients and nonpancreatic cancer patients were tested. The differences in blood lipids between patients with and without pancreatic carcinoma were compared, and the correlation between blood lipids and neuron-specific enolase was analyzed. We confirmed that the serum triglyceride level of pancreatic cancer patients at initial diagnosis is overtopping nonpancreatic cancer patients, and the neuron-specific enolase level of patients with pancreatic carcinoma is better than nonpancreatic carcinoma sufferers. Triglyceride level is positively correlated with neuron-specific enolase level, and serum triglyceride level has predictive value for pancreatic cancer. Hyperlipidemia can promote tumor growth and increase the expression levels of ENO1, ENO2, and ENO3 in subcutaneous tumor formation of pancreatic cancer in mice. Additional hyperlipidemia promoted pancreatic carcinoma metastasis in the lung in mice injected through the tail vein, which confirmed that hyperlipidemia accelerated the process of EMT by increasing the expression of ENO1, ENO2, and ENO3, therefore promoting the pancreatic cancer cell metastasis.